In both Jewish and Islamic tradition there are patterns of movement in prayer, this is particularly noticeable in how both show physical recognition, submission and reference to the Creator through the act of movement.
|Torah||3rd Century Aramaic||Rabinic||Arabic|
|Rising to pray||qam||qam||qiyam|
|Standing prayer||‘amad||tzaluta||‘amidah tefillah||tzalat (salat)|
|Raising hands||nisiyat kapayim
|nisiyat kapayim||nisiyat kapayim||niyyat|
|Bowing down with hands resting on knees (expressing recognition)||bereikha||bereikha||barkhu||ruku|
|Feet, hands and face to the ground (expressing submission)||qida||qida||4 times in the amidah||sajda (4 sajadat, 2 times each raqah – fajr)|
|Full prostration arms, legs spread no face to ground (after sacrifice)||hishtakhawah||sajda||-||-|
|Kneeling, suplicating prayer||kri’ah (hands outstretched, not sitting on feet)||kri’ah||‘alenu||qu’ud (sitting on feet)|
|Taking leave||shalom||shalom||oseh shalom||salaamu ‘alaikum|
|Face to the ground (petition for forgiveness)||nifilat apayim||nifilat apayim||face rests on arm during tachnun||salatul tasbih|
These movements should not be followed by religious readers trying to find the correct way to pray, for this you should consult a religious authority.
Reproduced from an article by Rabbi Ben Abrahamson